The deposition efficiency (DE) of a particular powder for a particular thermal spray process is very important factor when coating economics is being considered. There are many coating applications, however, where it is also important to know how the deposition efficiency changes during a longer coating process. Normally the DE is determined as mass ratio of powder fed into the process and corresponding weight gain of the sample. In this work the deposition efficiency has been determined for aluminum oxide powder in atmospheric plasma spraying using different spray parameters and electrode wear states. The coating process and in-flight particles were monitored using a fast non-intensified CCD-camera. Using digital image analysis the relative hot particle concentrations and velocity distributions were calculated from images. The possibility to use a CCD camera based monitoring system for in-situ measurement of DE is discussed. Additional laser illumination and PTV measurements were performed to verify the cold particle flux unseen by the plain CCD camera.