One of the main levers to reduce CO2 emissions in cars and trucks is mass and friction reduction, which is often achieved through the use of special coatings. The aim of the present work was to develop metal-ceramic-lubricant composite coatings with the best combination of wear, seizure, fatigue, and thermal resistance. Metal-based coatings incorporating hard particles and solid lubricants were cold sprayed onto steel substrates and the relationship between coating microstructure and tribology was studied. To meet the demanding tribological requirements of heavily loaded engines, the interfaces between the different components were optimized by selecting appropriate feedstock powders and assessing a wide range of process parameters. Alumina-reinforced bronze composite coatings were made from powders with different morphologies. Aggregated ceramic powders were found to be more beneficial in terms of wear than massive powders, and graphite was found to be effective for reducing seizure.

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