The generation of a high velocity carrier gas flow for cold metal particle applications is addressed, with specific focus on titanium cold spraying. The high hardness of this material makes cold spraying titanium difficult to achieve by industry standard nozzles. The redesign of a commercial conical convergent-divergent cold spray nozzle is achieved by the application of aerospace design codes, based on the Method of Characteristics, towards producing a more isentropic expansion by contouring the nozzle walls. Steady three-dimensional RANS SST k-ω simulations of nitrogen are coupled two-way to particle parcel tracking in the Lagrangian frame of reference. The new contoured nozzle is found to produce higher particle velocities with greater radial spread, when operated at the same conditions/cost of operation as the commercial nozzle. These numerical results have shown the potential for extending cold spray to high density and low ductility particles by relatively minor rig modifications, through an effective synergy between gas dynamics and material science.

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