Segregating the convoluted effects of particle size, impact temperature and velocity on deposition behavior and adhesion is of utmost interest to the cold spray field. The current study aims to associate the particle impact behavior and adhesion to its in-flight characteristics by studying and decoupling the influence of particle size, temperature and velocity for single particle impacts and full coatings. Experimental results reveal that in-situ peening processes contribute to the adhesion at low impact temperature while particle velocity controls the adhesion/cohesion at increased particle impact temperatures. The benefits of both bonding mechanisms are discussed in terms of measured adhesion/cohesion, bend-to-break fracture surfaces, pseudoplasticity, deposition efficiency and critical velocity. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results provide individual particle trajectory, size, temperature and velocity, of successfully deposited particles, which have led to the observed signs of metallurgical bonding.

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