In cold spray, 5-150 μm particles (of metal, ceramic, composite, and other materials) are accelerated to supersonic velocities through a deLaval nozzle with an inert gas (generally He or N2) that can reach 1000 °C. In the process, the gas jet impingement on the target and the extreme plastic deformation of impacting particles cause heat generation in the coating layers and the substrate. The heat generation has been argued to cause residual stress, which may cause coating-substrate delamination. In this study, heat generation due to gas impingement and particle plastic deformation has been predicted from CFD and FEA simulations, respectively. Furthermore, a finite volume method has been presented for transiently simulating the coating buildup and bulk heat generation in the coating and the substrate. The model is intended to assist researchers understand thermal affects in the coating process and help design more informed coating patterns to reduce negative thermal effects.

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