In this study, the effect of the substrate roughness and thickness on the heat transfer coefficient of the impinging air jet upon a flat substrate was investigated. A low-pressure cold spraying unit was used to generate a compressed air jet that impinged on a flat substrate. A detailed mathematical model was developed and coupled with experimental data to determine the heat transfer coefficient and surface temperature of the substrate. It was found that increasing the roughness of the substrate enhanced the heat exchange between the impinging air jet and the substrate. As a result, higher surface temperatures on the rough substrate were measured. It was further found that the Nusselt number that was predicted by the model was independent of the thickness of the substrate. The results of the current study were aimed to cover the influential substrate parameters on surface temperature of the substrate that eventually can affect the final quality of the cold-sprayed coatings.