The present work builds on investigations of cold gas-sprayed Al coatings on Al2O3, which strongly indicated that heteroepitaxial growth is a possible mechanism supporting the adhesion between metal and ceramic at their interface. The present study was focused on the deposition of Al on further ceramic substrates (AlN, Si3N4 and SiC). In particular, it should be clarified whether the different ionicity of the chemical bonding in these substrate materials influences the interface formation or not. Aluminum coatings were deposited alternatively by using cold-gas spraying (CGS) and magnetron sputtering. In CGS coatings, the effect of substrate roughness, substrate temperature and powder fraction on the adhesion of the coating was investigated. The magnetron-deposited coatings were used to evaluate the role of the heteroepitaxy in the interface formation and to identify microstructure defects in the metal/ceramic interface, which are caused solely by the lattice misfit between the counterparts and not by the impact-induced deformation that is typical for cold gas-sprayed coatings. Interface characterization was conducted by scanning electron and high resolution transmission electron microscopies combined with XRD.