Various approaches are presented in this paper to adapt conventional twin wire arc spraying (TWAS) for the production of smooth and finely structured coatings. Higher particle velocities were achieved by modifying spraying nozzle geometry. New geometries that incorporate a Laval shape produced the highest particle velocities while also eliminating overspray and extending the high-velocity region. This led to a more focused spraying plume and a change in optimal spraying distance, which was found to be more than 200 mm based on coating roughness. Some of the new nozzles exhibited evidence of particle deposition on the inner walls, which can restrict plume flow if not addressed. The problem is related to the position of the Laval throat in the spray plume as well as changes in gas pressure.

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