It is usually difficult to deposit effectively spray particles with a much limited melting in thermal spraying. In the present study, flame spraying was employed to produce yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) particles at a limited melting. The melting degree of YSZ particles was controlled by flame combustion intensity and flying distance of spray particles within gas flame. The velocity of spray particles was quantitatively measured. The effects of spray distance and acetylene flow rate on the particle velocity, and deposition behavior were examined. The surface morphology of deposited particles was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The bonding between deposited YSZ particles and YSZ substrate was examined from cross section. The spray particles in different melting states were obtained by changing flame spray parameters. The deposition experiment revealed that the YSZ particles at different melting states from only surface layer melted state, semi-melted state to substantially melted state can be successfully deposited on YSZ substrate by controlling substrate temperature. As a result, YSZ surfaces with different morphologies of particles from a near spherical shape, hat-on-frustum shape and hat-shape with different neck sizes, to a pancake shape and well spread disk shape have been created.

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