In cold spraying, the required heat for bonding is provided by plastic deformation of the impacting ductile particles. Therefore, cold spraying is a well-established method for metal on metal coatings. However, few authors have investigated the impact phenomena and layer formation process for impacting brittle ceramic particles on ductile metal surfaces. For this study, titanium dioxide (TiO2) on metal surfaces was chosen as a model system, and layer formation on aluminum, copper, titanium and steel substrates was investigated by SEM, TEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that the deposition efficiency depends on spray temperature, powder properties, and in particular on substrate ductility, even for an impact of ceramic particles during a second pass over already coated areas. High-resolution TEM images revealed no crystal growth or phase transitions at the ceramic/metal interfaces. Nevertheless, a clear dependence of the photocatalytic activity on spray parameters and substrate material could be observed. Cold-sprayed TiO2-coatings have potential applications in biomedical implants or as photo-catalytic functional systems

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