The processes of microstructural evolution in titanium during deposition by cold spray were investigated. Titanium particles underwent plastic deformation at very high strain rates, resulting in (a) extensive refinement and (b) large inhomogeneities in microstructure. There were large nanostructured areas (several micrometres in extent) with high dislocation densities and subgrain sizes less than 100 nm. Dense dislocation tangles and elongated subgrains were observed in other places. It is hoped that by further understanding the microstructural changes that occur during cold spray, improvements in mechanical properties may be realised.