This study investigates the influence of spraying distance and substrate orientation on the formation of metallic coatings by detonation spraying. Deposition efficiency was determined for aluminum, copper, titanium, and steel powders sprayed at different distances on substrates oriented at different angles. The results show that detonation products maintain their influence on sprayed particles even outside the barrel despite the pulsed nature of the detonation spraying process. Numerical calculations of particle acceleration and heating inside the barrel are performed for several materials and a theory of the processes outside the barrel is proposed. Optimal spraying parameters allowing 60-80% deposition efficiency are defined and experimentally validated for the materials studied.

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