The concept of ‘process maps’ has been utilized to study the fundamentals of process–structure–property relationships in high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed coatings. Ni- 20%Cr was chosen as a representing material of metallic alloys. In this paper, concurrent experiments including diagnostic studies, splat collection, and deposition of coatings were carried out to investigate the effects of fuel gas chemistry (fuel gas/oxygen ratio), total gas flow, and energy input on particle temperature (T) and velocity (V), and coating microstructure formation and properties. Coatings were deposited on an ‘in situ’ curvature monitoring sensor to study residual stress evolution. A strong influence of particle velocity on induced compressive stresses through peening effect is discussed. The complete tracking of the coating buildup history including residual stress evolution and temperature deposition, in addition to single splat analysis allows the interpretation of resultant coating microstructures and properties, and enables coating design with desired properties.

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