When describing the cold spray process, one of the most widely used concepts is the critical velocity. Current models predicting critical velocities take the temperature of the sprayed particles explicitly into account but not the surface temperature (substrate or already deposited layers) on which the particle impact. This surface temperature is expected to play an important role since the deformation process leading to particle bonding and coating formation takes place both on the particle and the substrate side. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of the substrate temperature on the coating formation process. Experiments were performed using aluminum, zinc and tin powders as coating materials. These materials have a rather large difference in critical velocities that gives the possibility to cover a broad range of deposition velocity to critical velocity ratio using commercial low pressure cold spray system. The sample surface was heated and the temperature was varied from room temperature to a high fraction of the melting point of the coating material for all three materials. The change in temperature of the substrate during the deposition process was measured by means of a high speed IR camera. The coating formation was investigated as a function of (1) the measured surface temperature of the substrate during deposition, (2) the gun transverse speed and (3) the particle velocity. Both single particle impact samples and thick coatings were produced and characterized. Both the particle-substrate and interparticle bondings were evaluated by SEM and confocal microscopy

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