A three-dimensional model of particle impact and deformation on rough surfaces has been developed for HVOF sprayed polymer particles. Fluid flow and particle deformation was predicted by the Volume of Fluid (VoF) method using Flow-3D® software. The effect of roughness on the mechanics of splatting and final splat shapes was explored through the use of several prototypical rough surfaces, e.g. steps and grooves. In addition, a numerical representation of a more realistic rough surface, generated by optical interferometry of an actual grit blasted steel surface, was also incorporated into the model. Predicted splat shapes were compared with SEM images of Nylon 11 splats deposited onto grit blasted steel substrates. Rough substrates led to the generation of fingers and other asymmetric three-dimensional instabilities that are seldom observed in simulations of splatting on smooth substrates.