Since its inception, the Office of Naval Research (ONR) program entitled, “Thermal Spray Processing of Nanostructured Coatings”, has produced numerous successes relating to military and industrial applications. Commercially available thermal spray processes have been used to apply ceramic coatings from nanostructured powders, producing dramatically improved wear performance over coatings from conventional non-nanostructured powder. The nanostructured alumina-titania coating has been instrumental in extending the life of a critical Navy need, the protection of the main propulsion shaft of mine countermeasures ships. The advancement in nanostructured oxide coatings has led to the development of the first industrial application of a thermal sprayed nanostructured coating. A nanostructured titanium oxide coating has been developed and successfully incorporated into severe-service ball valves used in hydrometallurgical extraction of gold, nickel, and cobalt. This paper will also present promising results from current development work relating to nanostructured coatings for thermal barrier, biomaterial, and reconditioning applications.