The physical bonding of spray particles to the substrate is a main factor which contributes to the high adhesive strength of HVOF WC-Co coatings in addition to the mechanical interlocking effect. The adhesive strength between substrate and coatings deposited with partially melted particles under HVOF spray conditions has a significant contribution from physical bonding compared with conventional thermal spray processes having molten particles with relatively low velocity. The physical bonding results from the high impact velocity of partially-molten droplets during the HVOF spraying process.

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