Modification of the nozzle of the arc spray equipment was attempted in order to reduce microstructural defects of the spray-formed steel shells since these defects mainly degrade the overall properties of the spray-formed tools. Based on the in-flight particle analysis, a new nozzle design of a gas shrouding concept was proposed. Effects of design factors such as nozzle dimensions and process conditions was investigated by using statistical analysis methods. The results demonstrated that the oxidation of the spray-formed steel shells can be reduced to the one-third levels of the original ones with an optimized design.

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