In the materials world, there are two distinct usages of the term nanotechnology; Particulate Materials Nanotechnology (PMN) and Bulk Materials Nanotechnology (BMN). Both approaches have been used in attempts to produce nanoscale coatings with characteristic length scales from 10 to 100 nm. While particulate strategies are widespread, a different approach is presented which focuses on producing coatings through a solid / solid state transformation which results in the refinement of the microstructural scale (i.e. phase / grain size) down to the nanoscale regime. The essential features of BMN are the 2-d grain and phase boundary defects and achieving this nanoscale regime is key to enhancing bulk properties. This paper will attempt to clarify the terminology, definitions, and usages of the term nanoscale to clear up misconceptions and clearly show the salient features allowing for the production of nanoscale microstructures on an industrial scale. A clear demonstration of this achievement will be presented with a case study on the formation of amorphous / nanocomposite coatings while processing in air using off the shelf thermal spray technology using conventionally sized feedstock. Examples of nanostructured HVOF and wire-arc as-sprayed and heat treated coatings with average phase sizes of 50 nm and 80 nm respectively will be presented using detailed TEM micrographs.