This paper deals with experimental and theoretical aspects of the post-treatment of thermally sprayed layers with high-power lasers. Various layers, such as VPS-sprayed CoCrAlY layers, APS-sprayed zirconium dioxide, aluminum oxide, and hydroxyapatite layers, as well as APS-FeCr+TiC layers, are post-treated with a continuous carbon dioxide laser with a power range of several KW/centimeter square. The microstructure and the wear resistance of the layers before and after the laser treatment are examined. Another post-treatment technique used is the laser shock process, in which the laser has a pulse time of 10-30 ns and an output of 8-10 GW/centimeter square. This technique is used for HVOF-sprayed Al-SiC composites. The microstructure of the layers is characterized with an X-ray phase analysis, a light microscope, and a transmission electron microscope. The interaction between laser and layer is modeled with the aid of the "Fusion-2D" program. Paper includes a German-language abstract.