Various processes are used to manufacture the nanostructured materials, such as the sol-gel process, the DC-MSIP process, and the HF-MSIP process. It is also possible that the nanostructures can also be produced in a short time using a thermally activated coating process. Zirconium oxide and aluminum oxide are the most important oxide ceramics. Both have a wide range of applications. In this paper, nanostructured layers of zirconium and aluminum oxide are produced with atmospheric plasma spraying. The layers are characterized with a scanning electron microscope, a transmission electron microscope, and an X-ray phase analyzer. Dense nano-structured oxide layers (zirconium oxides and aluminum oxides) with high microhardness are produced using the atmospheric plasma spray process. Paper includes a German-language abstract.