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Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2022, ISTFA 2022: Conference Proceedings from the 48th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 306-309, October 30–November 3, 2022,
... pads were exposed to a humid environment causing pad corrosion over time. The F-assisted corrosion created so-called black mushroom (BM) defects on the Al pads according to the defects appearance, resulting in the non-stick pads for wire bonding. Experimental tests were carried out to induce the Al pad...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2022, ISTFA 2022: Conference Proceedings from the 48th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 310-318, October 30–November 3, 2022,
... Abstract Copper ball bonding is the most widely used interconnection method in microelectronic packages. It has enabled many modern technologies, but the bond can fail due to corrosion. This paper concerns quantitative analyses of corrosion products of passing and failing copper ball bonds...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2022, ISTFA 2022: Conference Proceedings from the 48th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 374-377, October 30–November 3, 2022,
... reliability. Failure analysis has been conducted to study the failure mechanism. It is found that Cl reacted with IMCs under humid environment. Cl also caused wire bond failure in HTS test without moisture. On the other hand, the results showed that S was not a corrosive ion. It was also not a catalyst...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2022, ISTFA 2022: Conference Proceedings from the 48th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 422-425, October 30–November 3, 2022,
... end. Contamination on the bond pad leads to reliability issues such as pad corrosion, delamination and failure leading to leakage and open fails of electronic devices. Therefore, detection accuracy and sensibility of contamination is important. Auger analysis is the most suitable technique to check...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2020, ISTFA 2020: Papers Accepted for the Planned 46th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 240-244, November 15–19, 2020,
... of Ti and Cu are in direct contact, galvanic corrosion can occur in the presence of alkaline solution and discontinuities in the seed Ti layer. We found that galvanic corrosion in the studied system can be further complicated by the existence of copper oxide and titanium oxide as well as Cu and Ti...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2018, ISTFA 2018: Conference Proceedings from the 44th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 413-417, October 28–November 1, 2018,
... Abstract This paper describes the investigation of donut-shaped probe marker discolorations found on Al bondpads. Based on SEM/EDS, TEM/EELS, and Auger analysis, the corrosion product is a combination of aluminum, fluorine, and oxygen, implying that the discolorations are due to the presence...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2016, ISTFA 2016: Conference Proceedings from the 42nd International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 1-6, November 6–10, 2016,
... and additional failure mechanisms as backside damage, charging of foils, pad corrosion and sawing residue damages. This paper explains in detail these failure sources, including detailed explanations on root causes and physical mechanisms as well as important hints for failure analysts how to distinguish related...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2016, ISTFA 2016: Conference Proceedings from the 42nd International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 287-290, November 6–10, 2016,
... limits, it could cause F-induced corrosion and Al-F defects, resulting in pad discoloration and NSOP problems. In our previous studies [1-5], the theories, characteristics, chemical and physical failure mechanisms and the root causes of the F-induced corrosion and Al-F defects on Al bondpads have been...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2016, ISTFA 2016: Conference Proceedings from the 42nd International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 613-618, November 6–10, 2016,
... induced corrosion of copper wire bond that resulted in an electrical failure. In the first case, adjacent pin resistive short failures were found to fail due to corrosion and electrochemical migration at wires that were in contact with calcium chloride particles. Analysis showed that the highly...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2016, ISTFA 2016: Conference Proceedings from the 42nd International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 619-626, November 6–10, 2016,
... of the Cu-rich IMC, the corrosion resistance of the wire bonding is enhanced and the wire bonding reliability improved. We find that Ni behaves thermodynamically quite similar to Pd in the ternary system of Cu wire bonding, and therefore possesses the potential to improve the corrosion resistance...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2016, ISTFA 2016: Conference Proceedings from the 42nd International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 627-629, November 6–10, 2016,
... Abstract Recently a phenomenon has been found that shows different corrosion rates over Al bond pad regardless of different densities of Cl, F components on Al bond pads in different products. According to the results of analysis, the products showed different corrosion rates for different etch...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2015, ISTFA 2015: Conference Proceedings from the 41st International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 278-281, November 1–5, 2015,
... Abstract In the authors' previous papers, the failure mechanism and elimination solutions of galvanic corrosion (Al-Cu cell) on microchip Al bondpads in the Al process (0.18un and above) have been studied [1-2]. In this paper, the authors will further study the failure mechanism and root cause...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2015, ISTFA 2015: Conference Proceedings from the 41st International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 418-423, November 1–5, 2015,
... resistance were analyzed and compared, with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The data suggested the corrosion rates were higher for the more Cu-rich Cu-Al intermetallics (IMC) in the failing sample. The corrosion was investigated...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2015, ISTFA 2015: Conference Proceedings from the 41st International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 451-454, November 1–5, 2015,
... of the C-spring connector fracture to be plating solutions trapped in deep grain boundary grooves etched into the C-spring connectors during the pre-plating cleaning operation. The stress necessary for the stress corrosion cracking mechanism was provided by the C-spring connectors, in the land-grid array...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2014, ISTFA 2014: Conference Proceedings from the 40th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 166-171, November 9–13, 2014,
... spectroscopy, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry is reported. It is found that the bond degradation is due to the galvanic corrosion in the Ag-Al bonding area. Specific attention is given to the information of microstructures, elements, and corrosive ions in the degraded bond. In this study...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2014, ISTFA 2014: Conference Proceedings from the 40th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 215-217, November 9–13, 2014,
... Abstract It is well-known that underetch material, contamination, particle, pinholes and corrosion-induced defects on microchip Al bondpads will cause non-stick on pads (NSOP) issues. In this paper, the authors will further study NSOP problem and introduce one more NSOP failure mechanism due...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2013, ISTFA 2013: Conference Proceedings from the 39th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 134-137, November 3–7, 2013,
... Abstract In wafer fabrication, Fluorine (F) contamination may cause fluorine-induced corrosion and defects on microchip Aluminum (Al) bondpads, resulting in bondpad discoloration or non-stick on pads (NSOP). Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) is employed for measurements of the fluorine level...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2013, ISTFA 2013: Conference Proceedings from the 39th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 297-300, November 3–7, 2013,
... product release procedures. By applying this measurement method after various life-tests, it has been possible to collect information on degradation in the copper aluminium system which is currently being used to make a model of the corrosion mechanism in the copper aluminium system. bonding copper...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2013, ISTFA 2013: Conference Proceedings from the 39th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 438-444, November 3–7, 2013,
... Abstract Lead-free manufacturing regulations, reduction in circuit board feature sizes and the miniaturization of components to improve hardware performance have combined to make data center IT equipment more prone to attack by corrosive contaminants. Manufacturers are under pressure to control...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2012, ISTFA 2012: Conference Proceedings from the 38th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 305-309, November 11–15, 2012,
... Abstract A case study of Fluorine (F)-outgassing is presented in this paper that caused the corrosion of Aluminum bond pad. It will be shown that the source of F-contamination is not the typical residue left behind after the passivation etch with Fluorine-based gas chemistry and the subsequent...