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cobalt

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Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2011, ISTFA 2011: Conference Proceedings from the 37th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 327-329, November 13–17, 2011,
... community. Copper (Cu) contacts posed a significant challenge to nano-probing since Cu is soft and tends to deform during measurements. In addition, Cu oxidizes quickly in air, increasing contact resistance significantly between the probes and devices. This paper introduces electroless cobalt (Co) plating...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2021, ISTFA 2021: Conference Proceedings from the 47th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 274-278, October 31–November 4, 2021,
... of cobalt and its propensity to oxidize, thus complicating electrical measurements, is another challenge. In this study, the authors demonstrate an alternative delayering method based on plasma focused ion beam (PFIB) milling aided by DX gas. The workflow associated with the new method is more efficient...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2006, ISTFA 2006: Conference Proceedings from the 32nd International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 178-181, November 12–16, 2006,
... profile after removal of cobalt salicide (self-alignment silicide) by dilute HF. The vertical junction leakage path was identified with a C-AFM image. cobalt salicides conductive atomic force microscopy leakage current root cause analysis semiconductor devices silicon spectroscopy...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2020, ISTFA 2020: Papers Accepted for the Planned 46th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 214-218, November 15–19, 2020,
... from tungsten (W) to cobalt (Co), in combination with ultra-low K dielectrics. These new materials tend to make sample preparation and probing increasingly more challenging. At advanced nodes with sub-20nm contacts, probe landing accuracy and probe-contact stability are important to maintain good...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2000, ISTFA 2000: Conference Proceedings from the 26th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 141-146, November 12–16, 2000,
...Abstract Abstract This paper describes a novel de-process flow by combining cobalt silicide / nitride wet etch with KOH electrochemical wet etch (ECW) to identify leaky gate in silicided deep sub-micron process technology. Traditionally, leaky gate identification requires direct confirmation...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2000, ISTFA 2000: Conference Proceedings from the 26th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 373-376, November 12–16, 2000,
...) layer on a Kovar (iron/nickel/cobalt) housing. The soldering resulted in an extremely poor bond strength of a duroid circuit to the Kovar housing. The results showed contamination in the supplier’s electroplated Ni bath caused the plating to have poor bond strength. The failure occurred within the Ni...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2013, ISTFA 2013: Conference Proceedings from the 39th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 118-122, November 3–7, 2013,
... minimize the deposit resistivity, the contact resistance, the proximity deposition and the feature size, all while maintaining the chemical and thermal stability of the interface and producing high purity deposits. We have studied platinum [6], tungsten and cobalt [7] deposition using trimethyl...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2013, ISTFA 2013: Conference Proceedings from the 39th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 33-39, November 3–7, 2013,
... method to suppress electromigration diffusion is through the deposition of cobalt tungsten phosphate (CoWP) on the copper land surface and/or doping the copper seed layer of the interconnect with manganese, significant improvements in electromigration performance can be realized. The second method...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2009, ISTFA 2009: Conference Proceedings from the 35th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 234-241, November 15–19, 2009,
... and anomalous read curve was observed. Nanoprobing results suggest a data loss on the programmed single bit flash cell. TEM analysis showed Carbon/Cobalt residue on the sidewall of the failing transistor. The cause of the failure was due to process anomaly. TEM analysis showed Carbon/Cobalt residue...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2019, ISTFA 2019: Conference Proceedings from the 45th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 329-335, November 10–14, 2019,
... at the pace observed by Gordon Moore in 1965[5], foundries have had to continuously innovate their process to meet the increased performance expected with scaling[6]. In addition to reduced dimensions, a transition from Tungsten to Cobalt, was necessary to reduce contact resistance and improve switching...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2016, ISTFA 2016: Conference Proceedings from the 42nd International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 137-140, November 6–10, 2016,
... an increase in the contact resistance, thus lowering the current magnitude of the abnormal transistor to a greater degree than expected. CMOS sensors cobalt disilicides contact resistance electron energy loss spectroscopy embedded SRAM pull-down transistors root cause analysis transmission...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2001, ISTFA 2001: Conference Proceedings from the 27th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 431-435, November 11–15, 2001,
..., in addition to discontinuous cobalt silicide. These defects are believed to be interrelated and should originate from the same root cause, which is poly residue [6, 7]. The poly residue was left here during poly-gate patterning and polysilicon etch. The poly residue not only inhibited the formation of cobalt...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA1999, ISTFA 1999: Conference Proceedings from the 25th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 335-341, November 14–18, 1999,
... cross section of transfer gate in SRAM cell Comparison of the transfer gates in the failing SRAM cell shows a marked difference in the appearance of the cobalt silicide film for these two adjacent transfer gates. Figure 3 Detail of TEM cross section of transfer gate in adjacent, non-failing SRAM cell...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2009, ISTFA 2009: Conference Proceedings from the 35th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 261-267, November 15–19, 2009,
...: Plots from the nanoprobing data showing gate to source leakage. Figure 10: TEM images showing Cobalt Silicide (CoSi) stringer Case 2: Bit Leakage (CoSi): The unit is deprocessed down to contact level and inspected both optically and by SEM at each level. PVC is observed at the bit of interest...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2002, ISTFA 2002: Conference Proceedings from the 28th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 695-699, November 3–7, 2002,
... window is easily measured. However, the NaOH etchant was found to be unsuitable for large polysilicon with tungsten silicide (WSix) or cobalt silicide (CoSix). After delayering, dummy holes were introduced on the poly surface. Numerous dummy holes were observed on the large capacitor structures...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2006, ISTFA 2006: Conference Proceedings from the 32nd International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 297-299, November 12–16, 2006,
... detected at the cobalt silicide area, shown in Fig. 2(a), would normally be taken as a background signal. In extreme cases, an EDS spectrum with copper peaks could completely mislead the analyst. An example of such case, shown in Fig. 2(b), is a spectrum from the poly Si area showing strong copper peak...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2006, ISTFA 2006: Conference Proceedings from the 32nd International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 453-456, November 12–16, 2006,
... Fig-8 (b) Cobalt salicide process stage Fig-8 (c) Flash lamp annealing Fig-8 (d) Backside cleaning (a) After N+/P+ implanting situation (b) Cobalt salicide process stage (c) Flash lamp annealing (d) Backside cleaning Figure 8: The ratiocinative failure mechanism related with thermal budget was showed...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2016, ISTFA 2016: Conference Proceedings from the 42nd International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 182-185, November 6–10, 2016,
.... Overall, using these techniques have led to 1) increased chances of successfully finding the defects, 2) better characterization of the defects by having a planar view perspective and 3) reduced time in localizing defects compared to performing cross section alone. cobalt disilicides failure...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA1998, ISTFA 1998: Conference Proceedings from the 24th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 109-116, November 15–19, 1998,
...(R) elements mclud.ing vanadiwm copper, titaniuw niabiw cobalt and magnesium. These elements we~ most likely the nmuumts of pnwious heats within the melt. Although the material tlom all vendors was within Sp3cificatiow small differences were noted in the manganese, silicom chrmnim nickel...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA1999, ISTFA 1999: Conference Proceedings from the 25th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 413-418, November 14–18, 1999,
... analysis. First, we can suppress the knock-on effect by primary accreted ions (i.e., O+, Cs+) in the high-impurity-concentration region. Second, we can ignore the interface roughness between the cobalt salicide and the poly-Si gate. Figure 4(a) shows a microscope image of the sample observed from...