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cell layer counting

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Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2021, ISTFA 2021: Conference Proceedings from the 47th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 347-351, October 31–November 4, 2021,
...Abstract Abstract This paper discusses the development of an automated cell layer counting process for preparing 3D NAND flash memory samples for TEM analysis. In an initial proof-of-concept, several line markings were inscribed on the test device in evenly spaced intervals in order to evaluate...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2012, ISTFA 2012: Conference Proceedings from the 38th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 526-531, November 11–15, 2012,
... are necessary inputs for the scan cells/ nets extraction process in the first step, prior to CA generation. This is achieved using an in-house developed script. Additional inputs like scan chain or process layer of interest can be used in conjunction as a filter. Fig. 4 illustrates an example. Fig. 4(a) depicts...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2020, ISTFA 2020: Papers Accepted for the Planned 46th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 335-337, November 15–19, 2020,
... the cell internal layer drastically reducing the turnaround time for failure analysis. This paper describes a method to enable cell aware diagnosis in a foundry environment, perform a volume diagnosis analysis with RCAD (fail mode pareto) and drive failure analysis with a quick turnaround time for a 14nm...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2018, ISTFA 2018: Conference Proceedings from the 44th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 300-302, October 28–November 1, 2018,
... limited to this cell type only as shown in Figure 1. Normalized Fail Count Rate - 4Mb [Log] 8x Higher 10 1 0.1 HD 0.01 Wafer1 Wafer2 HP Wafer1 Wafer2 Figure 1: SRAM Fail Rate comparing cell types on leading planar technology. Several Failure Analysis attempts from Bitmap analysis and Electrical Failure...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2004, ISTFA 2004: Conference Proceedings from the 30th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 538-545, November 14–18, 2004,
... after the top four layers of metallization have been removed. The vias for the bit lines and supplies are now visible for all the bit cells in the array. Locating failing bit cells in the FIB by counting rows and columns is relatively easy. possible cause for a single bit failure. Also, the via stacks...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2012, ISTFA 2012: Conference Proceedings from the 38th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 391-398, November 11–15, 2012,
... of the remainder of this paper will be the preparation of TEM lamella from IC devices that have been identified as faulty using any of the various EFA and PFA techniques that are described elsewhere in the proceedings of annual conferences dedicated to FA techniques [14]. Cell-Counting In the case of an EFA...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2019, ISTFA 2019: Conference Proceedings from the 45th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 227-231, November 10–14, 2019,
... device, the process will likely require modification to enable successful channel etches as the layer count is expected to increase for next generation 3D NAND. There is some variation in mean cell area between sites, but all three sites exhibit the same precipitous drop in mean cell area between layers...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2002, ISTFA 2002: Conference Proceedings from the 28th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 523-527, November 3–7, 2002,
... function is threefold: to form an adhesion layer to the device I/O pad, to form a solderable surface to the bump, and to create a diffusion barrier preventing solder from diffusing through the UBM to the aluminum device I/O pad. If solder were to diffuse through the barrier layer and reach a non-solderable...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA1996, ISTFA 1996: Conference Proceedings from the 22nd International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 401-407, November 18–22, 1996,
... algorithm for obtaining a physical XY count. Tester data is stored in a database and can be accessed by various groups. Early failure analysis work provides aids to simplify the bitline and wordline counting needed to locate a failing cell. Falling Trench Capacitor Fig. 5 - FIB image of a failing trench...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2019, ISTFA 2019: Conference Proceedings from the 45th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 249-255, November 10–14, 2019,
... cell library. For layers other than the contact layer, the images of layers where convolved against each other and the point of maximum correlation was recorded. For the contact layer, the N-gram length was used. It is defined as the count of consecutive columns of contacts in a cell. For instance...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2021, ISTFA 2021: Conference Proceedings from the 47th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 410-413, October 31–November 4, 2021,
...; Fig. 3b represents EDS maps normalized to the number of counts per point in discrete color code. The SEM images and EDS measurements show a 300 µm diameter milled area with an extremely clean and uniform surface. The slope area, which exposed silicon nitrate, silicon oxide, aluminum, and copper layers...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2021, ISTFA 2021: Conference Proceedings from the 47th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 369-376, October 31–November 4, 2021,
... on logic cell U76, beginning from the topmost metal layer, going down to the transistor level. No interconnect issues were found on the middle-of-line (MOL) and back end layers. Transistor-level probing, however, revealed a high threshold voltage (Vt) on both NMOS (N1) and PMOS (P1-1DG) transistors...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2000, ISTFA 2000: Conference Proceedings from the 26th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 69-75, November 12–16, 2000,
... an enormous amount of failure signature information that can be studied to predict root cause mechanisms and evaluate cell library robustness. Both the defect location and probable process layer of the defect can be theorized. Other advantages include the ability to measure defect densities as opposed...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2005, ISTFA 2005: Conference Proceedings from the 31st International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 355-362, November 6–10, 2005,
.... Phys. Lett., vol. 79, no. 6, 2001, pp. 705-707. 361 [21] S. Thompson et al., A 90 nm Logic Technology Featuring 50nm Strained Silicon Channel Transistors, 7 Layers of Cu Interconnects, Low k ILD, and 1um² SRAM Cell , Int. Electron Dev. Meeting., 2002. [22] F. Stellari, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2014, ISTFA 2014: Conference Proceedings from the 40th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 365-369, November 9–13, 2014,
... experimental purposes. c. Focus Ion Beam (FIB) Method Focus Ion Beam (FIB) system is another equipment widely used in the failure analysis lab. Using Gallium ion beam and combination of gases for milling or etching, FIB can be used to damage the metal layers above the memory cells. Resolution of the FIB...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2003, ISTFA 2003: Conference Proceedings from the 29th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 184-190, November 2–6, 2003,
... category, we may find spare logic cells with special backside/frontside access and spare lines routed across the chip to distribute the signals from the spare cells without adding considerable RC delay. Also counted in this category are hooks for backside mechanical probing. Elaborated discussion...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA1999, ISTFA 1999: Conference Proceedings from the 25th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 389-396, November 14–18, 1999,
...). Figure 6 shows the four diagnostic models. Figure 6 Diagnostic fault models. The stuck-at model covers shorts to power and ground, and cell defects that cause the output of a cell to be a fixed value. The node model covers opens on signal lines and cell defects that cause binary errors of both polarities...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2002, ISTFA 2002: Conference Proceedings from the 28th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 397-401, November 3–7, 2002,
... to enable accurate failure site localization on high-R interconnects. Three products manufactured using 0.25um and 0.18um processes with one poly layer, five and six metal layers of 1M gates counts of random logic devices plus 2M embedded memory and analog devices were analyzed. All of the failures were...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2007, ISTFA 2007: Conference Proceedings from the 33rd International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 270-274, November 4–8, 2007,
... inspection at the silicide anneal, W CMP and M1 levels. The layout is derived from the target SRAM cell for this technology. As typical throughout the industry, it contains six transistors including two nFET pass gates, two nFET pull down gates and two pFET pull up gates. The drains of all four nFETs...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2007, ISTFA 2007: Conference Proceedings from the 33rd International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 46-51, November 4–8, 2007,
... must either be counted from a corner or mark, 2. a super high precision (50nm accuracy) stage must be used or, 3. a means of highlighting the leaking cell must be used for registration. Counting is difficult and probing and marking of failed cells is not a good option for eDRAM because the mark...