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BEOL

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Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2008, ISTFA 2008: Conference Proceedings from the 34th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 198-203, November 2–6, 2008,
... exchange dynamics. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time the efficiency of this technique on 45 nm Back End Of the Line (BEOL) defective test structure on image mode, and we underline the efficiency of the developed technique to differentiate artifacts from true defects in 45 nm BEOL structures...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2015, ISTFA 2015: Conference Proceedings from the 41st International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 258-260, November 1–5, 2015,
... of line capacitor bank failure analysis fault isolation giant magneto resistance sensors magnetic field imaging shorting defects thermal laser stimulation Comparison of Magnetic Field Imaging and Thermal Laser Stimulation for Detecting Electrically Shorting Defects within a Die BEOL Kevin...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2020, ISTFA 2020: Papers Accepted for the Planned 46th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 219-225, November 15–19, 2020,
... on pulsed IV nanoprobing applications were mostly related to Front End Of Line (FEOL) issues and simulations. In most of these cases, the electrical abnormality could also be observed with normal DC IV measurement. In this paper, the pulsed IV nanoprobing was performed at the Back End Of Line (BEOL...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2012, ISTFA 2012: Conference Proceedings from the 38th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 297-304, November 11–15, 2012,
...Abstract Abstract In this paper, we propose a new methodology and test system to enable the early detection and precise localization of Time-Dependent-Dielectric-Breakdown (TDDB) occurrence in Back-End-of-Line (BEOL) interconnection. The methodology is implemented as a novel Integrated...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2013, ISTFA 2013: Conference Proceedings from the 39th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 33-39, November 3–7, 2013,
...Abstract Abstract For 22nm and below technologies which involve as many as fifteen back end of the line (BEOL) metallization levels, these leading edge technology nodes pose real challenges in defect localization and root cause analysis. Due to scaling, the reduction in copper land cross...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA1999, ISTFA 1999: Conference Proceedings from the 25th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 335-341, November 14–18, 1999,
...Abstract Abstract Characterizing and fault localizing sub 0.25μm six level copper BEOL microprocessor RISC designs operating above 450 MHz clock speeds pose significant challenges in functional defect localization and identification. The flip chip designs of these microprocessors with high...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2016, ISTFA 2016: Conference Proceedings from the 42nd International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 55-60, November 6–10, 2016,
... (<14nm) nodes. 14 nm back end of line copper delayering focused ion beam metallization nanoprobing root cause analysis scanning electron microscope transmission electron microscopy Localization of Non Linear Defects in Sub 14nm BEOL Structures Terence Kane, Michael Tenney IBM Systems...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2017, ISTFA 2017: Conference Proceedings from the 43rd International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 489-494, November 5–9, 2017,
... three-dimensional X-ray microscopy Use of 3D X-Ray Microscopy for BEOL and Advanced Packaging Failure Analysis Christian Schmidt, Stephen T. Kelly Carl Zeiss SMT, Pleasanton, CA, USA christian.schmidt2@zeiss.com, (925) 701-3547 Ingrid De Wolf IMEC and also KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Abstract...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2018, ISTFA 2018: Conference Proceedings from the 44th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 232-237, October 28–November 1, 2018,
.... To combat the aggressive back-end-of-line (BEOL) scaling which has significantly decreased the controllability of manual polishing, gas-assisted Xe plasma FIB has been employed to achieve large area uniform delayering. Combined with an in-situ probing capability within the plasma FIB, the iterative process...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2012, ISTFA 2012: Conference Proceedings from the 38th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 203-206, November 11–15, 2012,
...Abstract Abstract The back-end-of-line (BEOL) structure of current IC devices fabricated for advanced technologies is composed of film stacks with multiple interfaces. The requirement of high interfacial strength is therefore necessary between the different layers in the BEOL stacks to ensure...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2018, ISTFA 2018: Conference Proceedings from the 44th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 104-110, October 28–November 1, 2018,
...Abstract Abstract GHz scanning acoustic microscopy (GHz-SAM) was successfully applied for non-destructive evaluation of the integrity of back end of line (BEOL) stacks located underneath wire-bond pads. The current study investigated two sample types of different IC processes. Realistic bonding...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2008, ISTFA 2008: Conference Proceedings from the 34th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 204-208, November 2–6, 2008,
...Abstract Abstract MOSFET devices are routinely measured at the probe pad level with conventional capacitance-voltage (CV) measurement instruments. Such measurements are done at the front end of line (FEOL) and back end of line (BEOL) process completion levels. The CV data is used to monitor...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2009, ISTFA 2009: Conference Proceedings from the 35th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 208-213, November 15–19, 2009,
...Abstract Abstract We compare different dc current-based integrated capacitance measurement techniques in terms of their applicability to modern CMOS technologies. The winning approach uses quadrature detection to measure mutual Front-End-Of-Line (FEOL) and Back-End-Of-Line (BEOL) capacitances...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2010, ISTFA 2010: Conference Proceedings from the 36th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 233-235, November 14–18, 2010,
...Abstract Abstract IR-OBIRCH (Infrared Ray – Optical Beam Induced Resistance Change) is one of the main failure analysis techniques [1] [2] [3] [4]. It is a useful tool to do fault localization on leakage failure cases such as poor Via or contact connection, FEoL or BEoL pattern bridge, and etc...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2010, ISTFA 2010: Conference Proceedings from the 36th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 317-319, November 14–18, 2010,
... delayering methods of conventional scanning capacitance microscopy has also been highlighted [1,2,3,4,5,6]. Typically, this laboratory AFP characterization is employed on die fragments sampled from whole wafers following back end of the line (BEOL) metallization processing and test. The process vintage...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2014, ISTFA 2014: Conference Proceedings from the 40th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 268-273, November 9–13, 2014,
... (BEOL) are usually very thick metal lines (>4μm thickness) and protected with hard Silicon Dioxide (SiO2) material that is formed from (TetraEthyl OrthoSilicate) TEOS as Inter-Metal Dielectric (IMD). In order to perform physical failure analysis (PFA) on the logic or memory, the top thick metal...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2020, ISTFA 2020: Papers Accepted for the Planned 46th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 338-340, November 15–19, 2020,
...Abstract Abstract Low-K dielectric adhesion problems were observed at M1 and M2 levels during thermal cycling of a flip chip product. Nano-indentation of simple BEOL test structures was used to determine the relative strength of the various interfaces in the BEOL stack. It is observed...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2001, ISTFA 2001: Conference Proceedings from the 27th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 217-224, November 11–15, 2001,
...Abstract Abstract As logic technologies ramp to 0.13 µm and beyond, integrating lower resistance dual damascene copper plated BEOL interconnects with low k (k = 2.65) processing with Dow Chemical’s SiLKTM dielectric and with silicon-on- insulator (SOI) technology offers even higher performance...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2009, ISTFA 2009: Conference Proceedings from the 35th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 73-75, November 15–19, 2009,
... in specific MOSFET devices at CA level as well as to identify resistive BEOL via interconnections and FEOL defective high k metal gate structures without the attendant time consuming delayering steps employed with classical SCM methods. Localization of a FEOL defect in a discrete 32nm SOI MOSFET device...
Proceedings Papers

ISTFA2019, ISTFA 2019: Conference Proceedings from the 45th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, 104-110, November 10–14, 2019,
... this, a case study at die level is presented in an attempt to distinguish the phase information from two stacked M2-M3 metallization layers of the Back-End Of the Line (BEOL). Finally, temperature mapping results of a 5 micron wide aluminum feature in silicon-oxide is presented that is pushing the optical...