The increasing trend for industry adoption of three-dimensional (3D) microelectronics packaging necessitates the development of new and innovative approaches to failure analysis. To that end, our team is developing a tool called the quantum diamond microscope (QDM) that leverages an ensemble of nitrogenvacancy (NV) centers in diamond for simultaneous wide fieldof- view, high spatial resolution, vector magnetic field imaging of microelectronics under ambient conditions [1,2]. Here, we present QDM measurements of two-dimensional (2D) current distributions in an 8 nm process node flip chip integrated circuit (IC) and 3D current distributions in a custom, multi-layer printed circuit board (PCB). Magnetic field emanations from the C4 bumps in the flip chip dominate the QDM measurements, but these prove to be useful for image registration and can be subtracted to resolve adjacent current traces on the micron scale in the die. Vias, an important component in 3D ICs, display only Bx and By magnetic fields due to their vertical orientation, which are challenging to detect with magnetometers that traditionally only measure the Bz component of the magnetic field (orthogonal to the IC surface). Using the multi-layer PCB, we demonstrate that the QDM's ability to simultaneously measure Bx, By, and Bz magnetic field components in 3D structures is advantageous for resolving magnetic fields from vias as current passes between layers. The height difference between two conducting layers is determined by the magnetic field images and agrees with the PCB design specifications. In our initial steps to provide further z depth information for current sources in complex 3D circuits using the QDM, we demonstrate that, due to the linear properties of Maxwell's equations, magnetic field images of individual layers can be subtracted from the magnetic field image of the total structure. This allows for isolation of signal from individual layers in the device that can be used to map embedded current paths via solution of the 2D magnetic inverse. Such an approach suggests an iterative analysis protocol that utilizes neural networks trained with images containing various classes of current sources, standoff distances, and noise integrated with prior information of ICs to subtract current sources layer by layer and provide z depth information. This initial study demonstrates the usefulness of the QDM for failure analysis and points to technical advances of this technique to come.

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