There are many wafer level tests, such as Fail Bit Count (FBC), where conventional statistical analysis methods are inadequate because the associated data do not follow a normal distribution. This paper introduces a statistical failure analysis technique that does not rely on location and scale parameters and is thus able to handle such cases. It describes the math on which the method is based and explains how to determine effect size (ES) using the quantile comparison equivalence criteria (QCEC) and a statistical parameter, called the center of dispersion (CoD), that distinguishes between center difference and dispersion difference. It also includes a case study showing how the new method is used to assess the effect of a process change on dynamic random access memory test data and how it compares in terms of accuracy with conventional statistical techniques.

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