This paper describes optical and electron beam based fault isolation approaches for short and open defects in nanometer-scale through-silicon via (TSV) interconnects. Short defects are localized by photon emission microscopy (PEM) and optical beam-induced current (OBIC) techniques, and open defects are isolated by active voltage contrast imaging in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results are confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) cross-sectioning.

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