This paper explains how the authors determined the cause of a fast-to-rise failure discovered during scan chain testing of an image sensor. The failed device was mounted on a portable card that facilitates transfer between test platforms in an electro-optical probing (EOP) system. Initial fault localization was conducted through backside PEM, but the results were inconclusive. The part was then analyzed on a digital scan chain tester to check for flaws in the daisy chain of shift registers. Through broken scan chain analysis, the potential cause of the problem (a failing flip-flop) was narrowed down to a few chain links and ultimately pinpointed using EOP fault isolation techniques. The failed device was then deprocessed by parallel lapping and analyzed in a SEM, revealing a broken poly gate as the physical cause of failure.

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