This paper presents novel optical beam-based defect localization approaches for resistive and open failed wafer-towafer (W2W) bonding interconnects for 3-D integration. The use of an etch back process in combination with thermal laser stimulation (TLS) and light-induced capacitance alteration (LICA) using visible laser excitation enables us to accurately pinpoint defects in high-density W2W interconnect structures down to a pitch of 2.2 µm. We confirm our results by focusedion beam (FIB) cross sectioning.

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