Abstract

Lock-in techniques enable the detection of very small signals in a background that can be dominated by noise. This strength makes these techniques valuable especially for failure analysis of active devices where the deviation may be difficult to detect. This paper describes novel use case applications in which the lock-in amplifier plays a key role. The case studies covered are multi-frequency mapping fault isolation with nonperiodic patterns and frequency resonance measurement of a micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope. The paper presents how lock-in amplifiers enable digital failure analysis using compressed scan patterns. It reports on using a lock-in to characterize a MEMS gyroscope and on how to directly observe the gyroscope motion using phase laser voltage imaging/electro-optical frequency mapping. It can be concluded that the lock-in techniques form an essential part of the failure analysis toolkit and will only be more so with this study.

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