Abstract

A Bill of Materials (BoM) is the list of all components present on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB). BoMs are useful for multiple forms of failure analysis and hardware assurance. In this paper, we build upon previous work and present an updated framework to automatically extract a BoM from optical images of PCBs in order to keep up to date with technological advancements. This is accomplished by revising the framework to emphasize the role of machine learning and by incorporating domain knowledge of PCB design and hardware Trojans. For accurate machine learning methods, it is critical that the input PCB images are normalized. Hence, we explore the effect of imaging conditions (e.g. camera type, lighting intensity, and lighting color) on component classification, before and after color correction. This is accomplished by collecting PCB images under a variety of imaging conditions and conducting a linear discriminant analysis before and after color checker profile correction, a method commonly used in photography. This paper shows color correction can effectively reduce the intraclass variance of different PCB components, which results in a higher component classification accuracy. This is extremely desirable for machine learning methods, as increased prior knowledge can decrease the number of ground truth images necessary for training. Finally, we detail the future work for data normalization for more accurate automatic BoM extraction. Index Terms – automatic visual inspection; PCB reverse engineering; PCB competitor analysis; hardware assurance; bill of materials

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