On older semiconductor technology, electron-beam probing (EBP) for active voltage contrast and waveform on frontside metal lines was widely utilized. EBP is also being extended to include the well-known optical techniques such as signal mapping imaging (SMI) with the use of a lock-in amplifier in the signal chain and e-beam device perturbation. This paper highlights some of the achievements from an Intel in-house built e-beam tool on current technology nodes. The discussion covers the demonstration of fin and contact resolution on the current technology nodes by EBP and the analysis of the SRAM array with EBP and EBP of metal lines. By utilizing EBP, it has been demonstrated that logic state imaging, SMI, and waveform have significantly improved spatial resolution compared to the current optical fault isolation analogues.

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