With decreasing device sizes, nanometer-sized defects on the wafer substrates can already limit the performance of the devices. The detection and precise classification of these defects requires additional characterization methods with a resolution in the nanometer range. It is well known that AFM can measure not only surface morphology but also mechanical and electrical properties. However, the versatility of AFM is not fully utilized in industrial applications due to the various limitations. Various limitations include low throughput and tip life in addition to the laborious efforts for finding the defects in inline automated defect review (ADR). In this paper we introduce the ADR AFM with mechanical and electrical characterization capability of defects in addition to high throughput, high resolution, and non-destructive means for obtaining 3D information for nm-scale defect review and classification.

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