In 1986 the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) was invented by Gerd Binnig, Christoph Gerber, and Calvin Quate . Since then, numerous analytical techniques have been developed and implemented on the AFM platform, evolving into what is collectively called the Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM). The SPM has since become well established as a mainstream analytical instrument with a continually increasing role in the development of nanoscale semiconductor technologies providing critical data from initial concept to technology development to manufacturing to failure analysis .
Scanning Capacitance Microscopy (SCM) has a longstanding, well-established track record for detecting dopant-related mechanisms that adversely affect device performance on planar (Field Effect Transistor) FETs as well as other structures (e.g., diodes, capacitors, resistors). The semiconductor industry’s transition to three dimensional FinFET devices has resulted in many challenges with regard to device analysis. This is especially true when it is necessary to perform detailed dopant analysis on a specific device; the device may be comprised of a single or multiple fins that have been called out specifically through traditional fault localization techniques. Scanning Capacitance Spectroscopy (SCS) is an analytical method, implemented on the SCM platform in which a series of DC bias conditions is applied to the sample and the carrier response is recorded using SCM . SCS has a proven history of highlighting dopant related anomalies in semiconductor devices, which, in some instances, might not otherwise be “visible”. This paper describes successful application of SCM and SCS in showing, in full detail, a dopant-related failure mechanism on an individual, location-specific 14 nm FinFET.