The potential benefits and challenges of low kV SEM imaging and EDS elemental analysis have been discussed in the SEM community since at least the early 1990s [1,2]. Concurrent with steady progress in the performance of so-called extreme high-resolution ‘XHR’ SEM imaging [3], is an advancement in low-energy EDS using windowless, large solid angle ‘racetrack’ EDS detectors [4]. As lower kV imaging and EDS analysis becomes accessible, refined models of the interaction of low energy electron beam and real-world samples continues at full speed even today [5].

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