Abstract

The examination of partially deprocessed ICs for well imaging has been investigated. First it has been shown [1] that Ga+ FIB imaging can readily and strongly highlight the N-well / P-well boundary in an IC as shown again here. Second, a model which only considers secondary electron creation and scattering [2] is confirmed to be sufficient for understanding these imaging effects. Heavy Ga doping provides no marked change in PVC (passive voltage contrast). Then comparisons in the same field of view between optimized He+ and Ga+ imaging, has shown that He+ provides much greater PVC contrast when looking through deep oxide, and much better resolution on shallow surfaces. The quantitative model Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) [3] was consulted and confirmed these expectations for resolution and depth superiority of the He+ beam. According to the SRIM, there may even be less damage from the He+ beam. Yet these known effects of Ga+ damage has not prevented its widespread use in semiconductor FA and process monitoring. Thus, the use of GFIS (Gas field ion source) He+ beam for voltage contrast and junction imaging warrants further exploration.

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