Abstract

Modern 2D and 3D X-ray technologies are among the most useful non-destructive testing methods that enable the inspection of an object's internal features without cutting or disassembling the sample. This paper discusses the basic operating principle, advantages, and disadvantages of 2D and 3D X-ray based approaches for testing and failure analysis and describes how these different methods have practical application for failure analysis and dimensional metrology. The techniques discussed are radiography, classical laminography, computed tomography, and computed laminography.

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