Abstract

Methods are available to measure conductivity, charge, surface potential, carrier density, piezo-electric and other electrical properties with nanometer scale resolution. One of these methods, scanning microwave impedance microscopy (sMIM), has gained interest due to its capability to measure the full impedance (capacitance and resistive part) with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution. This paper introduces a novel data-cube approach that combines sMIM imaging and sMIM point spectroscopy, producing an integrated and complete 3D data set. This approach replaces the subjective approach of guessing locations of interest (for single point spectroscopy) with a big data approach resulting in higher dimensional data that can be sliced along any axis or plane and is conducive to principal component analysis or other machine learning approaches to data reduction. The data-cube approach is also applicable to other AFM-based electrical characterization modes.

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