High-resolution and high-sensitivity detection of free carriers in semiconductors is critical due to the trend of device miniaturization and diversification. To address this need, the AFM-based techniques of scanning spreading resistance microscopy, scanning capacitance microscopy, scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SNDM), scanning microwave impedance microscopy, and scanning microwave microscopy are used. This paper demonstrates enhanced SNDM with stepwise dC/dV and dC/dz imaging, qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis, and artifact-free carrier-density profiling of semiconductor devices. The trace mode in enhanced SNDM is switched between contact (dC/dV measurement) state and non-contact (dC/dz measurement) state for every line scan whereby the sampling intelligent scan mode is switched these states every pixel. Using IMEC Si standards and Si power MOSFET as examples demonstrates that this SNDM methodology can provide qualitative, quantitative, and artifact-free carrier density profiling of semiconductor devices.

This content is only available as a PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.