The results presented here show how high-speed simultaneous EBSD and EDS can be used to characterize the essential microstructural parameters in SnPb solder joints with high resolution and precision. Analyses of both intact and failed solder joints have been carried out. Regions of strain localization that are not apparent from the Sn and Pb phase distribution are identified in the intact bond, providing key insights into the mechanism of potential bond failure. In addition, EBSD provides a wealth of quantitative detail such as the relationship between parent Sn grain orientations and Pb coarsening, the morphology and distribution of IMCs on a sub-micron scale and accurate grain size information for all phases within the joint. Such analyses enable a better understanding of the microstructural developments leading up to failure, opening up the possibility of improved accelerated thermal cycling (ATC) testing and better quality control.