Industry and market requirements keep imposing demands in terms of tighter transistor packing, die and component real estate management on the package, faster connections and expanding functionality. This has forced the semiconductor industry to look for novel packaging approaches to allow for 3D stacking of transistors (the so called “More than Moore”). This complex 3D geometry, with an abundance of opaque layers and interconnects, presents a great challenge for failure analysis (FA). Three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field imaging (MFI) has proven to be a natural, useful technique for non-destructively mapping 3D current paths in devices that allows for submicron vertical resolution. 3D X-ray microscopy (XRM) enables 3D tomographic imaging of advanced IC packages without the need to destroy the device. This is because it employs both geometric and optical image magnifications to achieve high spatial resolution. In this paper, we propose a fully nondestructive, 3D-capable workflow for FA comprising 3D MFI and 3D XRM. We present an application of this novel workflow to 3D defect localization in a complex 2.5D device combining high bandwidth memory (HBM) devices and an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) unit on a Si interposer with a signal pin electrical short failure.

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