The paper demonstrates the moving of lock-in thermography (LIT) spot location by adjusting the lock-in frequency from low to high. Accurate defect localization in stacked-die devices was decided by the fixed LIT spot location after the lock-in frequency was higher than a specific value depending on the depth of the defect in the IC. Physical failure analysis was performed based on LIT results, which provided clear physical defect modes of the stacked-die devices.

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