Abstract

Scanning microwave impedance microscopy (sMIM) is an emerging technique that can provide detailed information beyond that of conventional scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM), and other electrical scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques, for the investigation and failure analysis (FA) of semiconductor devices. Integration of new dielectric materials at lower levels of the device structure with the need for quantification of dielectric and dopants in semiconductor devices with sub-micron spatial resolution pushes the practical boundaries of typical atomic force microscopy (AFM) electrical modes. sMIM can measure both linear and non-linear materials (insulators and doped semiconductors, respectively) simultaneously. sMIM has a linear response to log k (dielectric number) and log N (doping concentration) making it an ideal method for providing quantitative measurements of semiconductor devices over a large range of values. This work demonstrates an example of a practical application of sMIM for quantitative measurement of the dopant concentration profile in production semiconductor devices. A planar dopant calibration sample is used to calibrate the sMIM prior to performing the measurements on an “unknown” production device. We utilize nanoscale C-V data to establish a calibration curve for both n- and p-type carriers and apply the calibration curve to an “unknown” device, presenting the measurements in units of doping concentration.

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