Modern techniques of semiconductor physical failure analysis are effective at revealing physical defects and device material composition, however, dopant profiles/ concentrations are not easily determined since these materials are in trace concentrations. Therefore, defects related to dopants are often referred to as invisible defects. New techniques have been incorporated into failure analysis to reveal the invisible defects resulting from electrical carriers (via SCM/SSRM) and physical doping profile (via STEM/EDS) in nm-scale dimension. Using nanoprobing analysis, simulation for electrical modeling, along with EDS and SCM for physical profiling, we have a great opportunity to uncover abnormal doping issues allowing completion of the failure analysis and the execution of corrective actions.

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