We describe a technique for mapping the distribution and concentrations of trace elements, most notably with capabilities of achieving 1-10 parts per million sensitivities within 1 second and at <8 μm resolution. The technique features an innovative, high flux microstructured x-ray source and a new approach to x-ray optics comprising a high efficiency twin paraboloidal x-ray mirror lens. The resulting ability to acquire dramatically higher sensitivities and resolution than conventional x-ray fluorescence approaches, and at substantially higher throughput enables powerful compositional mapping for failure analysis, process development, and process monitoring.

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