To get both the resolution and the field of view needed, 3Di devices are characterized in this paper using phase-contrast X-ray tomography performed in a synchrotron source. The paper shows how the synchrotron-based tomography can be routinely used as a tool for failure analysis, and how some strategies can be applied to make those analyses more time-efficient and automatic without any loss of resolution. It presents and assesses the possibilities offered by a synchrotron radiation facility such as European Synchrotron Radiation Facility for the field of failure analysis in microelectronics. The paper illustrates those possibilities through two main examples, based on two different types of connection of bottom and top tiers in 3D integration, either thermocompression with copper pillars or hybrid bonding using copper pads. Several strategies have been successfully tested for the data acquisition to be faster and to limit the needed human intervention as much as possible.

This content is only available as a PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.