We analyzed the gain error issue and non-linearity issue of a precise Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) and found the root cause to be Random Telegraph Signal (RTS) noise in bipolar devices. The RTS noise produced nearly 1mV abrupt changes in a band-gap reference voltage, and affected ADC and other circuits where the reference voltage was used. We developed a new measurement method enabling us to detect RTS noise in bipolar with higher signal-to-noise ratio than traditional methods. We also developed an algorithm to extract RTS occurrence frequency and average magnitude. The RTS characterization capability has helped us invent a new bipolar structure and develop new processes to minimize RTS noise.

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