The X-ray inspection of fully assembled samples is becoming ever more important as the benefits of using area array packages/chip scale packages/flip chips are applied to more and more products. Sample preparation has traditionally been used to improve access to geometry or a specific location with a known defect that requires verification. The novel paradigm is an integrated approach to sample preparation and X-ray inspection to optimize resolution and throughput time performance with minimally deprocessed sample. This paper, covering the limitations of X-Ray imaging and 3D tomographic reconstruction, discusses the development of models for throughput time and resolution by failure analysis labs. It also discusses the processes involved in advanced sample preparation techniques and global BGA removal to obtain improved resolution at die level.

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