Although there are many advanced technologies and techniques for silicon diagnostics, effective failure analysis to root cause is getting increasingly challenging, as very often the electrical failure analysis data would point to a symptom that is the result of the defect rather than the actual location of the defect. Therefore, a combination of multiple techniques is often employed so that sensitivity of "the cause of the problem" can be observed. This work compiles a successful analysis with the aid of continuous wave laser voltage probing and soft defect localization techniques and presents three cases that are voltage-sensitive fails. The first case is a 28 nm device which failed at-speed scan. The second case is a 28 nm device failing RAM register BIST with high Vmin and the third case is a scan shift failure in a less than 28nm device.

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